Lace is a Chinese word, it is a kind of embroidery, also known as "draw yarn". It is made of cotton thread, hemp thread, silk thread or various kinds of fabric, through embroidering or knitting decorative hollow products.
1.A kind of embroidery
A kind of embroidery, also known as "yarn drawing". It is a kind of decorative hollow product which is made of cotton thread, hemp thread, silk thread or various kinds of fabric. Legend has it that it was introduced into China by Europe at the end of the qing dynasty. The ancient Egyptian tombs dating back to the 4th and 5th centuries were similar with lace and embroidery. Medieval European lace production was concentrated in monasteries. In the 15th century, Italy, Belgium and France developed lace production. The 17th century was a period of European lace production, which was famous for its Venetian lace. The British invention of lace looms in the 19th century, the mechanism of lace appeared, leading to the decline of European handmade lace. At the end of the 19th century, European lace was introduced into China, and the Irish missionary, ding maoming, opened a training school for girls in yantai, shandong province. An article of life used for embroidery and knitting. Variety has "pick up flower", "carve embroider", "net buckle" and so on. Tones are mostly white, pale yellow, beige, light green and pale blue. Suitable for tablecloth, bedspread, pillowcase, cushion, handkerchief and tea pad. The main producing areas are shandong, guangdong, jiangsu, zhejiang and Shanghai.
2. Decorative ribbon fabric
There are various pattern patterns, as decorative ribbon fabrics, used as a variety of clothing, curtains, tablecloth, bedspreads, lampshades, bedding, etc. The lace is divided into four categories: machine weaving, knitting, embroidery and weaving. Silk yarn interlaced lace, in our country a few ethnic groups use more, so also known as ethnic lace. Patterns of patterns are used with auspicious patterns. The texture of the woven lace is close and rich in color. Knitted lace tissue is loose, with clear eye, light and elegant appearance. Embroidery lace color number is not restricted, can make complex patterns. Woven lace is made of lace and is also useful by hand weaving.
The lace of our country
Lace starts late in our country, in the 1980 s, weaving lace machine mainly imported from foreign, in the early 1990 s, a company in jiangsu province has absorbed the characteristics of the foreign machines, combined with domestic actual situation, independent research and development for our country the first lace machine, as a pilot unit. From then on, the end of the lace machine problems which need to be imported in our country.
4. Lace classification
Wooden stick lace, lace green state (divided into two full lace and inlay spelling lace), carved flat embroidery, shuttle lace, cieme edge, hand lace, one hundred generation beautiful lace, embroidery lace, lace, knots woven lace... Full industrial lace with fine cotton thread as raw materials, woven, woven, thin weave, dense weave, woven into various patterns, the whole has the effect of the sculpture. Inlaid lace is the main body of woven lace, which is embroidered with linen embroidery. The product has pan mat, small inserts and tablecloth, bedspread, lace craft umbrella and so on.
5. Lace making
The United States was the first to have lace. Making is a complicated process, it is not like traditional hook or embroidery, and the book according to the design effect with silk thread or yarn knitting, the need when making the silk rao on each small spindle. Each shuttle is about the size of a thumb. A less complicated pattern requires dozens or nearly 100 small shuttles, and larger ones require hundreds of small shuttles. When making, put the design under the design, according to the pattern to use different weaving, knot, winding and other techniques to make.
6. Jaja lace
Jacquard (Joseph Marie, Joseph Marie,1752 ~ 1834), French loom craftsman, principal reformer of the Jacquard Jacquard. The early 18th century, French artisans cloth males according to the principle of ancient Chinese knot this manual jacquard edition to create paper hole jacquard machine, tape the borehole control thimble inserted, replace the meridian group point on the flower. After the improvement of farpore, wokangsong and others, it can produce the large decorative fabric with 600 needles. In 1799, the comprehensive innovation achievement of jacquard, made the pattern of transmission of a complete set of institutions, more perfect pedal-powered jacquard machine configuration, just one operator can weave more than 600 large decorative pattern. The jacquard won a bronze medal at the Paris exhibition in 1801. The characteristics of the mechanism it is with lace pattern, namely punched CARDS instead of paper, through the drive to drive a certain sequence of thimble retractor, according to the pattern to organize and coordinate action improve warp weave pattern. After 1860, switching to steam power instead of pedal transmission became automatic jacquard. After that, the world was widely disseminated and electric motors were used. To commemorate jaka's contribution, the jacquard machine is called the jacquard machine.
7. Cotton lace
Cotton lace is also called: pure cotton lace, woven lace, cotton lace, cotton edge.
Cotton lace material is mainly cotton yarn, cotton yarn has both light and light. The specifications are as follows: 42 yarn 4 shares and 6 shares, 60 yarn 4 shares and 6 strands of white wax tower line... Its models are S424, S426, S604, S606, and also can be recorded as 42S/ 4, 42S/ 6, 60/4, 60/6, where S represents the yarn, and the number below the line indicates the number of shares; Cotton yarn can be divided into bobbin yarn and Hank yarn according to different purpose.
The main production machine of "disc machine" cotton thread lace; The main specifications are 64 ingot, 96 ingot and 128 ingot. The working principle of disc machine is nail type knitting, it in cotton as the main raw material, the disc machine also commonly used in materials such as cotton, hemp, wool, silk natural and chemical fiber wire, chemical fiber yarn, gold silver, rayon, yarn, thread, gold silver onion onion, rope, ribbon.. Refined cotton lace with high quality cotton yarn, high color fastness, fine workmanship, soft, novel designs, styles are widely applied in bra, underwear, pajamas, fashion, bedding, socks, umbrellas, toys crafts.
8. Mechanism lace
At the end of the 18th century Europe tried to make lace by machine, in the process of improving the loom. In 1808, British j. heathcote invented the machine that produced the reticular fabric, and it was introduced two years later. In 1813, j. livesey of Nottingham, England, invented the lace loom of a wooden jacquard device, which could produce a patterned reticulated weave, called the liveris machine, along the way. In 1846, Nottingham had another curtain lace loom. Soon there were machines that could weave a variety of decorative lace fabrics. From 1900 to 1910, the European mechanism of lace industry was flourishing, and the machine could imitate the effects of all kinds of hand lace, since the mechanism lace had replaced the handmade lace. It can be divided into four categories: machine weaving, knitting, embroidery and weaving.
The jacquard organization controls the warp and weft threads. Commonly used raw materials have cotton thread, gold and silver thread, artificial silk thread, polyester yarns, mulberry silk thread and so on. The loom can be woven into a number of lace, or woven into a single sheet. The lace width is 3 ~ 170mm. The lace shading tissue has plain, twill, satin, honeycomb, small pattern, etc. Woven lace texture closely, the flower shape has the stereo feeling, the color is rich.
In 1955, European and American countries began to make knitted lace on the multi-comb warp knitting machine. The raw materials are mostly polyamide silk, polyester silk, so called knitted nylon lace. Knitted lace tissue is sparse, with obvious eye, light appearance and beautiful appearance.
Originated in Switzerland and Germany. It is used to control the upper and lower left and right of the embroidery machine, and the automatic exchange of the needle and shuttle, so that the surface line and the bottom line link to form the pattern. Embroidery lace work fine, flower shape, solid.
Made of torque lace machine. Cotton is the main raw material. The twist and movement of the spool is controlled by the laminae during weaving, and the yarn is formed into patterns. The torque lace machine can weave a lot of ribbons at the same time, and then the connection between the lace will be removed as a single strip. Woven lace texture is sparse, air permeability, appearance flat, beautiful.